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  • Electropalatography (EPG)

    Electropalatography (EPG) is a computer-based instrument used by specialists, which gives information on the location and timing of the tongue’s contact with the hard palate during continuous speech.

    Evidence Rating: Moderate

  • Earobics

    Earobics (Cognitive Concepts, 1997; Diehl, 1999) is a comprehensive computerised intervention program for training phonological awareness and auditory–language processing.

    Evidence Rating: Moderate

  • Phonology with Reading Programme (P+R)

    Phonology with Reading Programme (P+R) is an intervention approach which is inspired by research on reading difficulty. The majority of studies have been concerned with reading of single words and suggest that combining speech sound (phonological) training with reading is successful in facilitating reading development in poor readers.

    Evidence Rating: Moderate

  • Word

    The aim of WORD intervention is to improve children’s word-finding difficulties. Strategies involve encouraging reflection and the use of word finding strategies. As the programme progresses there is an increasing focus on meta-cognition and using words to communicate, as opposed to naming pictures). The intervention has both phonological and semantic components. The intervention evaluation study was conducted in the UK.

    Evidence Rating: Moderate

  • Vocabulary intervention in science

    The intervention focuses on an intentional approach to vocabulary instruction

    Evidence Rating: Moderate

  • Makaton

    Makaton is a language programme using signs and symbols to help people communicate. Designed over forty years ago, it is aimed at adults and children with learning difficulties although it has been used more widely for children learning to speak. The signs and symbols can be used either as a main method of communication or as a way to support verbal communication and the development of early language.

    Evidence Rating: Moderate

  • Visualising and verbalising

    Visualising and Verbalising (Bell, 1987) is a technique used to help understanding of language in language-impaired students. Visualising and Verbalising aims to improve mental imagery skills, which then help listening and reading comprehension.

    Evidence Rating: Moderate

  • Maximal oppositions

    Maximal opposition therapy is an approach for speech and language therapists who are working with children who have unclear speech due to phonological impairment. The approach is based on the therapist’s analysis what children know about the adult speech system and what they need to learn to make their own speech clearer. This analysis helps therapists decide what elements of speech to target, so as to get the best results (Gierut, 1992; Gierut, 2001; Gierut, Elbert & Dinnsen, 1987).

    Evidence Rating: Moderate

  • Visual approaches to support speech and language

    The underpinning reasoning for this approach is that children who have language learning difficulties often show strengths in their visual skills (Archibold & Gathercole, 2006). The approach covers a wide range of ways of supporting children’s language learning through the use of additional visual clues.

    Evidence Rating: Indicative